15. July 2024

Subject-oriented Modeling

I2PM Expert Group: Standardization, Tools & Resources for S-BPM

The expert group focuses on driving subject-oriented modelling in processes while providing standardization, tools and resources for S-BPM. By creating systematic models for companies, the group focuses on a deep understanding and design of efficient business processes. It develops analytical methods and tools to identify potentials and obstacles and implements process monitoring to continuously monitor performance. The group helps companies to use subject-oriented modelling to continuously optimize their processes and thus operate more effectively and efficiently.

Advisory Board

The expert group consists of a network of BPM experts, researchers and business practitioners.
Coordinator: Dr. Matthes Elstermann, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Subject-oriented-Modeling@i2pm.net)


  • Creation of systematic models for companies (enterprise modeling)
  • Designing efficient and effective business processes through subject-oriented models
  • Development of analysis methods and tools based on subject-oriented models
  • Implementation of process monitoring tools and procedures
  • Ability to react quickly to deviations or problems in business processes
  • Continuous improvement of business processes through subject-oriented models
  • Contribution to the applicability and usability of subject-oriented modeling and S-BPM in companies


  • Enterprise modeling with subject-oriented approaches
  • Designing efficient business processes through subject-oriented models
  • Analysis and improvement of business processes
  • Implementation of process monitoring tools
  • Fast response to problems in business processes
  • Continuous improvement of business processes
  • Applicability of subject-oriented modeling in companies
  • Benefits of S-BPM in corporate contexts


The expert group makes a significant contribution to ensuring that subject-oriented modeling and S-BPM can be applied and used profitably in companies. By developing tools and resources, standardization is driven forward and companies can benefit from more efficient, optimized business processes.

Standardisation of Subject Orientation

A group of people is working on a standardization of subject orientation.  Feel free to download the current version of the standard document. Constructive and also critical comments are welcome.

Working Document of the Standard, February 2020: 20200223-Standardbuch-PASS

The Combined Use of the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Abstract State Machines (ASM) for the Definition of a Specification Language for Business Processes

Matthes Elstermann,  André Wolski,  Albert Fleischmann, Christian Stary, and Stephan Borgert

The domain of Subject-oriented Business Process Management (S-BPM) is somewhat outstanding due to its embracing of Subject Orientation. However, at the same time, it is also a classic BPM domain concerned with typical aspects like creation and exchange of diagrammatic process models, elicitation of domain knowledge, and implementing process (models) into organisations and IT systems. Nevertheless, the Abstract State Machine (ASM) concept, a formal and abstract specification means for algorithms, has been and is fundamental and an important cornerstone for the S-BPM community. The first formal specifications for S-BPM has been developed by Egon Börger using ASM means — namely a specification for an interpreter engine for the subject-oriented modeling language PASS, the Parallel Activity Specification Schema. However, for the sake of intuitive and comprehensive use, ASM can be enriched with defining the passive aspects of PASS, namely the (data) structure of process models and data object appearing in the processes. Here it is useful to complement ASM description means with concepts that are better suited for that tasks. This work analyzes how the S-BPM research community has combined ASM with the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to generate a precise, while comprehensible, system specification for the execution of formal, subject-oriented process models. Furthermore, it will be argued why this combination is worthwhile overcoming the weaknesses of both generic and technology independent specification approaches.

Here you can find the whole presentation: Viedeo presentation

The related paper can be found in: Logic, Computation and Rigorous Methods, Essays Dedicated to Egon Börger on the Occasion of His 75th Birthday, Editors:  Alexander Raschke, Elvinia Riccobene, Klaus-Dieter Schewe, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 2021

Get engaged

Please send questions regarding content and requests for cooperation to the expert group by e-mail: